José Paranhos, The Baron of Rio Branco: 1000 Cruzeiros (Brazil, 1986)-Article

Updated: Mar 18

This Brazilian banknote represents the 4th denomination of the 2nd Cruzeiro (2nd Family, Series 1981-85). The 2nd Cruzeiro was adopted in 1970, after the renaming of the Cruzeiro Novo. The Series 1981-85 (2nd Family) were preceded by the notes of the 1st Family. Which include the color-coded Series 1970 and a commemorative 500 Cruzeiro (1972).

Notably nearly all notes of the Series 1981-85 feature mirrored artwork. This feature was first introduced on the 1,000 Cruzeiro (1978). It can be identified from its 2nd Family variant, by its brownish color scheme. The non-mirrored 2nd Cruzeiro notes were later reissued, as the provisional Cruzado Overprint (1986).

In 1986, the Cruzado replaced the 2nd Cruzeiro.


The observe features a mirrored portrait of geographer-diplomat José Maria da Silva Paranhos (1845-1912), “The Baron of Rio Branco”. He was renown for diplomatic skill, peacefully negotiatiating numerous border disputes, with Brazil's neighobors. These negotiations expanded Brazil's land mass by 10%. Earing him the title "Father of Brazilian Diplomacy".

The note's offset title reads, the (trans.) "Central Bank of Brazil". At the upper-left and right are number "1000"s, referring to the note's 1000 Cruzeiros value. Below the right number "1000" is one of the note's dual watermarks. Backlighting the note will expose a mirrored Marshal da Fonseca watermark. Doing so will also complete the registration element below it.

The note's "footer" is an exact mirrored copy of the beforementioned.


The reverse depicts a mirrored image of a theodolite (surveying tool), a reference the establishment of Brazil's borders. The first modern theodolite was invented in 1787, British mathematician Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800). Its mechanical precision allowed for greater surveying accuracy. Which was previously based on ancient methods, such as using set squares and strung lead weights.

The title above reads (trans) "Thousand Cruzeiros". To the left is a number "1000", with a signature below it. This signature represents the President of the National Monetary Council. At the note's upper-right is one of the note's serial numbers (B 013600294B). Below the serial number is the second half of the observe registration element.

Just the observe, the reverse "footer" is an exact mirrored copy of the upper half.

2nd Cruzeiro Gallery

(Gallery will be updated as new banknotes are databased)


Additional Notes

  • This note's dimensions are 154 x 74 mm or 6.06 x 2.91 in, larger than a US Dollar.

  • The preferable method to preserve this note are large sized protective sleeves.

  • The 2nd Cruzeiro ISO code was BRB, it used Cr$ as its official symbol.

  • The 2nd Cruzeiro was subdivided into 100 Centavos, all coins were in Cruzeiro values.

  • The some Centavo coins of the Cruzeiro Novo, circulated alongside the 2nd Cruzeiro.

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