Marshal Cândido Rondon, Amazonian Explorer: 1000 Cruzeiros (Brazil, 1991)-Article

Updated: Mar 17

This Brazilian banknote represents 4th denomination of the Third Cruzeiro (Series 1990-93). The Third Cruzeiro was preceded by the short-lived Cruzado Novo. Which circulated from 15 January 1989 and 15 March 1990. Both the Cruzado Novo and Third Cruzeiro were of equal value. As the currency was simply renamed. Making the change itself logistically questionable.

Notably the first 3 denominations of the Series 1990-93, are based on renamed Cruzado Novo notes. The remaining denominations mostly featured unique portraits of famous Brazilian. Although due to rampant inflation the Third Cruzeiro was replaced by the equally short lived Cruzeiro Real. The exchange rate was 1,000 Cruzeiros to 1 Cruzeiro Real.


The observe features a portrait of Amazon explorer Marshal Cândido Rondon. Marshal Rondon is remembered for Brazil's telegram commission and exploring the Amazon Basin. To the right, is an illustration of a rural telegram station, overlaid on a map of Brazil. During his journeys Marshal Rondon forged ties with Brazil's indigenous people. He later founded the Indian Protection Service.

The note's header is off-set to the upper-left. It reads, the (trans.) "Central Bank of Brazil". Notably the second "O" (DO) aligns with a faint security thread. Below the header is one of the note's dual-serial numbers (A 8444044530 A). The second number can be seen at the lower-right.

At the lower-left is a large number "1 000". Its (trans.) "Thousand Cruzeiro" text value is listed to the left. A second number "1 000" can be seen at the upper-right. Some distance below is a pair of signatures, representing the Minister of Finance (top) and Central Bank President (bottom).

Above these signatures is a "wheel" registration element. Backlighting the note with bright light, will complete the light puzzle effect. Doing so will also expose a mirrored image of "República", opposite of the "wheel". The remainder of the observe features a "Amazonian" pattern underprint.


The reverse depicts a pair of indigenous Karajá, backed by food and a Nhambiquara hut. The Karajá live along the banks of the Araguaia River. They are highly mobile and often live in temporary fishing camps. Although they grow a wide variety of crops during the rainy season. Body painting is common in Karajá culture and they create small clay statues, as trade items.

Similar to the observe, the reverse has number "1 000"s at its upper-right and lower-left corners. Although the text value now features a decorative backing. It extend from the lower center, to the water mark area, at the right. The before mentioned security thread roughly aligns, with the letter "R" in "Cruzeiros ".

The underprint features a relatively similar style underprint, with additional elements. Such as various types of arts and craft, throughout its surface. Some blue and red iridescent fibers can be seen on the note's unprinted sections.

Third Cruzeiro Gallery

(Gallery will be completed, as more banknotes are data based)


Additional Notes

  • This note's dimensions are 140 x 65 mm or 5.51 x 2.56 in, slightly smaller than a US Dollar.

  • The preferable method to preserve this note are standard sized protective sleeves.

  • The Cruzado Novo ISO code was BRN, it used NCz$ as its official symbol.

  • The 3rd Cruzeiro ISO code was BRE, it used Cr$ as its official symbol.

  • Both the Cruzado Novo and 3rd Cruzeiro were sub-divided into 100 Centavos.

  • The coins of both the Cruzado Novo and 3rd Cruzeiro were used in circulation.

  • The Centavo denominated coins of the Cruzado Novo were retained, while the 3rd Cruzeiro coins were issued in full Cruzeiro denominations.

  • The unissued 1 Cruzado Novo coin is known as the "Cruz de Cristo" (Christ's Cross).

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