De Assis, Pioneer Of Brazilian Literature: 1 Cruzado Novo (Brazil, 1989)-Article Variant

Updated: Mar 21

This Brazilian banknote represent the 1st denomination of the Cruzado Novo Overprint (Series 1989). The Cruzado Novo was a short-lived currency, which circulated from 15 January 1989 and 15 March 1990. It replaced the previous Cruzado, at a rate of 1,000 Cruzados to 1 Cruzado Novo. As the earlier Cruzado underwent rapid inflation, during its short 1986-1989 circulation.

Notably the last 3 denominations of the Cruzado served, as overprinted provisional Cruzado Novo notes. Such as this particular denomination, based on the 1,000 Cruzado (1987-1988). The overprinted stamp revalues the note to 1 Cruzado Novo. Although it should noted due to raising inflation (of the Cruzado Novo) a non-stamped variant was never issued.

In 1990, the Cruzado Novo was replaced at par (1:1) by the Third Cruzeiro.


The observe depicts novelist Machado de Assis (1839-1908), regarded as Brazil's greatest novelist. He was literate in multiple languages, teaching himself French, English, German and Greek. De Assis served as the first president of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. To the left is the academy's emblem, with an except from de Assis' book Esaú and Jacó (1904).

The note's header is off-set to the upper-left. It reads, the (trans.) "Central Bank of Brazil". Notably a faint security thread aligns with the letter "L" (Central). Below the header is one of the note's dual-serial numbers (A 9977039298 A). The second number can be seen at the lower-right.

At the lower-left is a large number "1 000". Its (trans.) "Thousand Cruzado" text value is listed to the left, on the note's underprint. A second number "1 000" can be seen at the upper-right. Below is a pair of signatures, representing the Minister of Finance (top) and Central Bank President (bottom).

Beneath the signatures is a "book and quill" registration element. Backlighting the note with bright light, will complete the light puzzle effect. Doing so will also expose a mirrored "Machado de Assis" watermark. Opposite of the "book and quill" registration element.

The center stamp converts the note to 1 Cruzado Novo.


The reverse features a beautiful illustration of the historic “1 March Street", in 1905 Rio de Janeiro. Originally named Rua Direita street, it's the oldest street in the city of Rio de Janeiro. It was renamed the “1 March Street", to celebrate the end of the Paraguay War (1864-1970). Toward the left of the illustration is half of the "book and quill" registration element.

Similar to the observe, the reverse has number "10"s at its upper-right and lower-left corners. Although the lower text now features a "guilloche" backing. It extend from the lower center, to the watermark area, at the right. The beforementioned security thread also aligns, between the letters "R" and "U" (Cruzados).

Additionally UV sensitive fibers can be seen on the note's unprinted sections.

Cruzado Novo Overprint Gallery

(Gallery features all provisional Cruzado Novo banknotes.)


Additional Notes

  • This note's dimensions are 154 x 74 mm or 6.06 x 2.91 in, larger than a US Dollar.

  • The preferable method to preserve this note are large sized protective sleeves.

  • The Cruzado ISO code was BRN, it used NCz$ as its official symbol.

  • The Cruzado was subdivided into 100 Centavos, circulated coins were in Centavos.

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