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De Assis, Pioneer Of Brazilian Literature: 1,000 Cruzados (Brazil, 1987)-Article

Updated: Dec 8, 2022

This large Brazilian banknote represents the 5th denomination of the Cruzado (1st, Series 1987). The Cruzado was a short-lived currency, which circulated from 1986 to 1989. Which replaced the previous 2nd Cruzeiro, at at a rate of 1 Cruzado to 1000 Cruzeiros. Notably the last 3 denominations of the 2nd Cruzeiro served, as overprinted provisional Cruzado notes.

Due to high inflation the Cruzado was replaced by the Cruzado Novo, at a rate of 1,000 to 1.


The observe depicts novelist Machado de Assis (1839-1908), regarded as Brazil's greatest novelist. He was literate in multiple languages, teaching himself French, English, German and Greek. De Assis served as the first president of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. To the left is the academy's emblem, with an except from de Assis' book Esaú and Jacó (1904).

The note's header is off-set to the upper-left. It reads, the (trans.) "Central Bank of Brazil". Notably a faint security thread aligns with the letter "L" (Central). Below the header is one of the note's dual-serial numbers (A 9977039298 A). The second number can be seen at the lower-right.

At the lower-left is a large number "1 000". Its (trans.) "Thousand Cruzado" text value is listed to the left, on the note's underprint. A second number "1 000" can be seen at the upper-right. Below is a pair of signatures, representing the Minister of Finance (top) and Central Bank President (bottom).

Beneath the signatures is a "book and quill" registration element. Backlighting the note with bright light, will complete the light puzzle effect. Doing so will also expose a mirrored "Machado de Assis" watermark. Opposite of the "book and quill" registration element.


The reverse features a beautiful illustration of the historic “1 March Street", in 1905 Rio de Janeiro. Originally named Rua Direita street, it's the oldest street in the city of Rio de Janeiro. It was renamed the “1 March Street", to celebrate the end of the Paraguay War (1864-1970). Toward the left of the illustration is half of the "book and quill" registration element.

Similar to the observe, the reverse has number "10"s at its upper-right and lower-left corners. Although the lower text now features a "guilloche" backing. It extend from the lower center, to the watermark area, at the right. The beforementioned security thread also aligns, between the letters "O" and "S" (Cruzados).

Additionally UV sensitive fibers can be seen on the note's unprinted sections.

Cruzado Gallery

(Gallery will be updated as new banknotes are databased)


Additional Notes

  • This note's dimensions are 154 x 74 mm or 6.06 x 2.91 in, larger than a US Dollar.

  • The preferable method to preserve this note are large sized protective sleeves.

  • The Cruzado ISO code was BRC, it used Cz$ as its official symbol.

  • The Cruzado was subdivided into 100 Centavos, coins were in Centavos and Cruzados.

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