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Notes Of The Federation Dinar, The Balkan Forger: 1000 Dinara (Yugoslavia, 1963)-Article

Updated: Apr 12

This Yugoslavian banknote represents the 3rd denomination of the “Federation Dinar" (Series 1963). The Federation Dinar was the post-WWII currency of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia from 1945-1965. The FPR Yugoslavia created partisan General Josip Tito (1892-1980), uniting the former territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

The Federation Dinar was created by consolidating the Serbian Dinar and Croatian Kuna. The exchange rate was 20 Dinar/40 Kuna to 1 Federation Dinar. While initially pegged 50 Dinar to 1 US Dollar. The Federation Dinar steadily lost value, leading to its eventual replacement.

On 1 January 1966, the Federation Dinar was replaced by the Hard Dinar.


The observe depicts a young woman with a scythe, backed by a wheat field. The header to the right is printed in Croatian. It reads (trans.) "National Bank" and "Federal Peoples' Republic Yugoslavia". Notably this replaced by multilingual text in the later "Hard Dinar". They featured text in Serbian, Slovenian, and Macedonia.

Below the header is a large number "1000" and quad text, which is read in combination with the number "1000". Moving first to last the text alternates from Serbian, Croatian, Slovenia, and Macedonia. Thus repeating the note's "1000 Dinara" face value, in all major national languages.

The text below the number "1000" states this note was printed in 1963, in the city of Belgrade (Beograd). Besides this are signatures, representing the Bank Governor and Chairman of the Broad. The note's red inked serial number can easily be seen further below, it reads "DC 728360".

At the footer is fine text, it reads "Zavod Za Izradu Novčanica-FNRJ". Representing the note's printer (ZIN), which was headquartered in Belgrade. ZIN was the printer all banknotes, issued by the National Bank of Yugoslavia.


The reverse features the Zenica Ironworks, which covers the note's center. Above and below the illustration are the native names of the constitute republics of the Federal Peoples' Republic Yugoslavia. While the Federal Peoples' Republic Yugoslavia listed in the 4 national languages above and below this text. The languages are Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, and Macedonian.

Flanking the illustration are 6 floral guilloché patterns, 3 on each side. The corner guilloché patterns feature a number "1,000" at their center. While the center-left and right patterns list the note's (trans) "Thousand Dinara" value, in 2 of the 4 national languages. The left-side pattern features Serbian and Slovenian text. While the right side features Croatian and Macedonian text.

There is counterfeit warning at the footer, it translates to "Forgery is punishable by law". It repeats this warning in all 4 major national languages.

A Tortured Icon, Arif Heralić

Arif Heralić on the 10 Hard Dinara (1965).
Arif Heralić on the 10 Hard Dinara (1965).

Arif Heralić (1922-1971) was Bosnian Roma steel worker, famous for being photographed in December 1954. His photo was taken by Nikola Bibić, for the Serbian newspaper Borba (struggle). Who met Heralić while visiting Zenica Ironworks, for a story on model workers. Heralić's (then) cheerful nature was held as a popular example, of socialist progress and prosperity.

Unfortunately, he died a disabled worker, who fell into chronic alcoholism and mental illness. He fathered 11 children and lived a life of extrema poverty. In 1967, his family sought to receive compensation for his likeness. Although were barred from doing so, as his famous photo was regarded as property of the state.

Heralić's story became public knowledge after Vojdrag Bercic directed the documentary "Devaluation of a Smile". Which broadcasted in January 9, 1968, on HRT (TV Zagreb). Despite quietly never being rebroadcast. It created a public debate regarding the Yugoslav state and it's treatment of workers. Which portrayed them as heroes, for it's own pollical narratives.

Since the fall of the SFR Yugoslavia, in 1992. Arif Heralić's image has been used to ironically reflect on the societal failures of Yugoslavia.

Federation Dinar Gallery

(Gallery is currently incomplete, will be updated as new banknotes are databased)


Additional Notes

  • This note's dimensions are 134 x 64 mm or 5.28 x 2.52 in, smaller than a US Dollar.

  • The preferable method to preserve this note are standard sized protective sleeves.

  • The Federation Dinar ISO code was YUM, it used both din. and дин as symbols.

  • The Federation Dinar was subdivided into 100 Para, coins were in Para and Dinar values.


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