Josef Stalin, World Leaders Hell Notes: 1 Million Yuan (China, Unknown)-Reference

This small novelty note is a 冥鈔 (míngchāo), more commonly known in Western nations as "Hell Money". These notes are produced by a wide array of companies making proper documentation difficult. As many competing companies will copy, combine, and modify designs. As these notes are designed for ritual burning to the ancestors, during funerals and traditional festivals.


The note is a part of hell note series, which depicts famous world leaders. The observe features a portrait of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (1878-1953), listed as "J.V. Stalin". The reverse depicts the Jade Buddha Palace, in Anshan. (Note Size: 118 x 63 mm or 4.65 x 2.48 in)


Observe


Reverse


Offerings To The Ancestors

A Chinese family respectfully burns offerings, at an ancestor's grave. Chinese Ghost Festival,
Joss paper notes and yuanbao being burned, during the Ghost Festival

"Hell money" is the western term for East Asian joss paper notes. These novelty notes are often burnt as offering, during Chinese ancestral worship ceremonies. Over the centuries this traditional Chinese practice. Has extended to other religions throughout East Asia. Being adopted by Buddhist, Taoist (China/Taiwan) and Shinto (Japan) temples.


The revenue from selling these notes, often helps to maintain the temple grounds and finance renovations. Although in general, the notes are most often burned during funerals and the Chinese Ghost Festival. The universal tradition being so one's ancestor "has good things in the afterlife".


The act of burning the notes, symbolically represents it's transition from the material to sprit realm. The practice also extends to burning yuánbǎo ("valuable treasure"), special imitations of gold and silver ingots. Although in modern times has extended to paper credit cards, cell phones, and cheques. Since 2006, the burning of more extravagant items (imitation clothes, electronics and cars), has been banned in mainland China.


Traditionally joss paper offerings were handmade from course bamboo paper. Cut into squares and rectangles shapes, hand applied stamps and seals. These handmade notes can be identified, by their personal imperfections and styles. It should be noted the collection of of handmade joss paper notes. Is it's own sub-field within numismatics. As a general rule, one should only buy antique joss paper notes, from reputable dealers.

A Dabai Shoujin ("longevity gold"), it features Fu, Lu & Shou (the Three Stars). These notes can be offered to heavenly deities.
Traditional Dabai Shoujin ("longevity gold") note, offered to heavenly deities.

This it in contrast to to modern mass produced joss paper "banknotes". Which are often made of cheaper rice paper, rather than bamboo. These modern notes almost universally feature whimsical takes on banknotes. Although a few past example have appeared so close to real banknotes. That they've been mistaken for counterfeits, leading to criminal investigations.

Stacks of joss paper "Yuan" and "Dollars". Can bought at many common shops in mainland China.
Stacks of joss paper "Yuan" and "Dollars", in the foreground.

Despite this, most common examples are brightly colored. And can be easily recognized, as novelty notes. Keeping in line with the more playful nature of modern joss paper notes. Unusually high denominations, ranging into the the millions are common. Their observe often features an imagine of the mythical Jade Emperor. While their reverse made differ, may say "Hell Notes", along with their Hanzi (Chinese characters) equivalent.


That said, the collection of joss paper notes, is well suited for youth and causal collectors. As they're low cost and lack the risk attached to potentially purchasing imitations. They're often sold in small sets, making it easy to create a collection, at minimum cost.


Additional Notes

  • Joss paper offering are intended to persuade Yama, Lord of Dìyù for better judgment.

  • The term "hell" was a western concept introduced by Christian missionaries.

  • Some newer "Hell Notes" replace the word "Hell", with "Heaven" or "Paradise".

  • This "Hell Note" features a relatively false low value, making it somewhat uncommon.

  • Most common "Hell Notes" feature absurdly high fictional values, within the millions.

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