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Notes Of The Krygyz Eagle 2: 10 Tyiyn (Kyrgyzstan, 1993)-Article

Updated: Jan 21, 2022

This Krygyz banknote represents the 2nd denomination of the First So'm (First Series, 1993). The term so'm means “pure” in a number Turkic languages and is a reference to pure gold. The First Som was introduced on 10 May 1993, as a replacement for Soviet Ruble. The First Som replaced the Soviet Ruble at rate of 1 to 200 and was divided into 100 Tyin.

The banknotes of the First So'm were created by world renowned printer De La Rue, London. Using designs by Dmitri Evgenyevich Lysogorov and Anatoly P. Tsygankov, of the Krygyz Union of Artists. The first 3 denominations were valued at 1, 10 and 50 Tyin, later replaced by brass-plated coins in January 2008. Tyin notes are easily recognizable by their unusual square shape.


The observe is relatively simple at first glance. Although quite ornate and symbolic, when viewed more closely. The note's 10 Tyin value is expressed as a number “10”, located on the upper right and lower left corner. At its center is a detailed sketch of an Asian Golden Eagle, also known as a Berkut. The Golden Eagle is the national symbol of the Kyrgyzstan.

The observe's eagle is wreathed by text, printed Cyrillic script. Prior to Soviets imposing modified Russian Cyrillic, on the Kyrgyz people. The Kyrgyz language was written in a number of successive scripts. These included the New Turkic Alphabet (a Latin script imposed by the Soviets, from 1928-1940), Perso-Arabic Script, and originally Orkhon script (Turkic Runes).

The observe's upper text reads “КЫРГЫЗ РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫ”, which translates to the National Bank of Kyrgyzstan. While lower text “ОН ТЫЙЫН”, simply translates to Ten Tyin. The note's text is surrounded by an ornate ring of 40 abstract figures, representing the “40 clans”.

The name “Kyrgyz” is a Turkic term meaning “We are forty”. A reference to the 40 clans united by the legendary hero Manas, against the Uyghur Khaganate. This same tale is reference by the flag of Kyrgyzstan, in the form of 40 rays on the sun.


The reverse mirrors the observe for the most part, with some minor alterations. Particularly in regards the center artwork. It features the Seal of Kyrgyzstan, a floral sun symbol with 40 rays. As oppose to Kyrgyzstan's other national symbol the Golden Eagle. At the sun's center is a tündük, the wooden crown of the traditional yurt. The tündük is seen as a symbol of cultural strength and heritage, throughout the Central Asian steppes.

Just as the observe, the center art is wreathed by the text “National Bank of Kyrgyzstan” (top) and “Ten Tyiyn” (bottom). The observe's ring of the “40 Clans”, is replaced by a ring containing a micro-print pattern. There is a thin "toothed" ring, running along the inner edge.

The Krygyz Eagle

The Asian Golden Eagle can be found throughout the Central Asian Steppes. It's symbolism is inseparable amongst the Turkic people, particularly the Kyrgyz. Where they're seen as a spiritual representation of the Kyrgyz nation's people.

They are the largest of the Golden Eagles, with an average wingspan of 2.21 m (7 ft 3 in). The largest recorded example was a captive female, with a 2.81 m (9 ft 3 in) wingspan. Female eagles are the largest with an average weight of 6.35 kg (14.0 lb). Males are significantly lighter, at an average weight of 6.35 kg (14.0 lb).

The Kyrgyz people living in the Tian Shan (Mountains of Heaven), are known for their mastery of falconry. Its practitioners are generally known as “münüshkör”, while those who specialize in hunting with falcons are known as “bürkütchü”. Derived from the Kyrgyz word for Golden Eagle, “bürküt”.

The early writing of Venetian explorer Marco Polo (1254-1324), refer to a legendary eagles and his falconer. Said to have captured 14 steppe wolves in a single day. Although there are equally legendary tales of wolves. One tales talks about a wolf who defeated 11 eagles, only succumbing to the 12th.

The art of capturing and training wild eagles is said to been passed down from father to son for centuries. The best eagles are said to be hunted, by observing an eagle after a large meal. Chasing over the steppes on a particularly capable horse over long distances. Overtaking the weighed down eagle on eventual landing.

The exhausted eagle will by nature lay on it back, brandishing it's talons. The hunter place soft felt into the talons, followed by swaddling the eagle in soft fabric, to prevent injury. Once retuned from the hunt, the hunter will empty the eagle's crop (throat pouch) of meat. Followed by cleaning it with tea and sugar mixture.

The eagle and the hunter will then traditionally spend the next few days, neither eating or sleeping. The hunter passes the days speaking and singing to the eagle, while playing a dorma (a traditional 4-string lute/guitar). When the eagle finally accepts the hunter's trust, the hunter offers a meal. That said, the eagle is considered not a slave, but mutually bonded. Thus symbolically free, as the traditional Kyrgyz lifestyle on the open steppes.

Ultraviolet Gallery

First So'm Gallery

(Additional notes will be added when databased)


Additional Notes

The note's dimensions are 90×70 mm or 3.54×2.76 in.

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