Notes Of The October Dinar, The People's Poet: 500 Billion Dinara (Yugoslavia, 1993)-Article
This colorful Yugoslavian banknote represents the 10th denomination of the “October Dinar” (1993). A product of the 1992 dissolution of Yugoslavia. The October Dinar briefly served as the currency of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A union of the republics of Serbia and Montenegro, which opposed the dissolution of the previous SFR Yugoslavia.
Notably with the exception of Nikola Tesla, the October Dinar notes features new portraits. Making them more recognizable, when compared to earlier Dinar series. The October Dinar was replaced the "January Dinar", on 1 January 1994. Due to October Dinar failing to counter rampant hyperinflation. (SEE: A Brief History of The October Dinar)
The observe features a portrait of noted Serbian poet Jovan Jovanović Zmaj (1833-1904). While often for his children's poetry and nursery rhymes. Zmaj also translated the works of other great poets, such as Alexander Pushkin and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Allowing common Serbians to enjoy them, earning him the nickname, "The People's Poet".
Just as "Reformed Dinar" notes, besides the portrait is the Central Bank of Yugoslavia logo. Rather then the Emblem of SFR Yugoslavia, featured on previous "Convertible Dinar". Above is dual Serbian and Croatian text, both translate to "National Bank of Yugoslavia". Unlike earlier notes, October Dinar lack security threads. When present, these threads align with the first letters of the upper text.
Below the central bank logo is a large number 500 Billion and dual text, stating the note's face value. An additional vertical number 500 Billion and title can be seen, at the left of the portrait. Toward the note's right is the watermark area. Although unlike earlier notes, which feature a mirrored image of their portrait. Notes of the October Dinar feature a full surface "waffle iron" watermark.
At the top of this watermark area is a number 500 Billion, on a decorative "lighting bolt" design. Notably the shape of this design varies, based on the note's portrait. To the far right is vertical text in Serbian, it reads "Фалсификовање је кажњиво по закону". Warning potential counterfeiters that, "Forgery is punishable by law". Below is the note's serial number "AA 1997772".
The reverse depicts the National Library of Serbia, in Belgrade. The library is the oldest and largest literary institution in Serbia. It has existed in a number of forms, in the two centuries and has endured repeated destruction. Such as the WWII German bombing of Belgrade, during Operation Retribution (1941). To avoid repeating such calamities, the modern library uses digital copies of its older works.
Just as the observe, the reverse features dual Serbian and Croatian text. Above the illustration is text, which simply translates to "Yugoslavia". While below is a large number 500 Billion and additional text, repeating the note's value, in Serbian and Croatian.
The reverse watermark area features Croatian text, on its counterfeit warning. Just as the observe number 500 Billion remains backed by a "lighting bolt" design. The serial number has been replaced by the text "гувернер-Guverner" and a signature, representing the Bank Governor. The text further below states this note was printed in 1993, at the city of Belgrade (Beograd).
At the note's footer is fine text, it reads "Narodna Banka Jugoslavije-Zavod Za Izradu Novčanica I Kovanog Novca-Beograd". The center section represents the note's printer, commonly known a ZIN. The last section refers to Belgrade, where ZIN is headquartered. While the first section refers to the notes being approved by the National Bank of Yugoslavia.
A Brief History of the October Dinar
The "October Dinar" represented the 4th re-denomination of the Yugoslavian Dinar. Since the introduction of the "Hard Dinar", in 1966. To best understand the October Dinar, is to learn the currencies, which preceded it. Beginning with the dissolution of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. And ending with the initial draw-down of the Yugoslav Wars, in the mid-90s.
The Reformed Dinar was introduced 1 July 1992, after the dissolution of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It primarily served as a (10:1) revaluation of the previous "Convertible Dinar". Which was heavily impacted by inflation, due to the sudden dissolution of the SFR Yugoslavia. Leading to period of independence wars and ethnic conflict, known as the Yugoslav Wars (1991-2001).
Notably the Reformed Dinar represented the 3rd revaluation of the Yugoslavian Dinar. Since introduction of the "Hard Dinar", on 1 January 1966. This chronic inflation was a contributing factor to dissolution of the SFR Yugoslavia. The Convertible Dinar was a final failed attempt to counter inflation, prior to Slovenia's and Croatia's succession.
The Reformed Dinar introduction was also used to invalidated the previous Convertible Dinar. Which the secessionist republics used to back their own transitional currencies. These currencies included the Slovenian Tolar, the Croatian Dinar, the First Macedonian Denar and the First Bosnia-Herzegovina Dinar. Denying them access to convertible currency was a major economic-political objective.
The Reformed Dinar also served as currency in ethnic Serbian enclaves. These enclaves were located along Croatian and Bosnian borders, neighboring Serbia. They formed the proto-states of the Republic of Serbian Krajina (Croatia) and the Republic of Srpska (Bosnia). Their currencies were respectively known as the Krajina and Srpska Dinar.
The First Krajina and Srpska Dinar were pegged at par (1:1) to the Reformed Dinar. These currencies were meant to provide a degree of legitimacy, to their claims of sovereignty. Although with the initial intent of being annexed by Serbia. Who also produced their currency through the Serbian state printer ZIN. The same printer as the Reformed Dinar and later the "October Dinar".
On 1 October 1993, the Reformed Dinar was replaced by the "October Dinar". Which was a (1 Million to 1) revaluation of the Reformed Dinar. It failed to counter hyperinflation and only remained in circulation to the year's end. The Second Krajina and Srpska Dinar were pegged at par (1:1) to the October Dinar. It was the final Yugoslav currency to serve this purpose.
The "January Dinar" was briefly issued from 1-24 January 1994". It replaced October Dinar at a ratio of 1 Billion to 1, representing 4th largest re-domination in history. The January Dinar represented the shortest-lived of all the Yugoslavian Dinar. It formed a temporary stop-gap pending the introduction of the "Novi Dinar". It represented the last re-domination of the Yugoslavian Dinar
On 24 January 1994, the Novi Dinar was issued. Although unlike previous Yugoslavian Dinar, it was pegged at par (1:1) to the Deutsche Mark. Thus finally solving the hyperinflation issue. Similar actions had been undertaken by the the secessionist republics. Which were nearing the end of their respective conflicts, due to peace negotiations.
Notably the Novi Dinar also replaced the Second Srpska Dinar. Despite the Republic of Srpska proto-state disbanding, in 1995. The Novi Dinar remained the de-facto currency within it's former territory. Until the adoption of Bosnia and Herzegovina Convertible Mark, on 22 June 1998. Which was also pegged to the German Deutsche Mark, thus simplifying its adoption.
1993 October Dinar Gallery
(Gallery features complete 1993 October Dinar Series)
This note's dimensions are 151 x 72 mm or 5.94 x 2.83 in, slightly larger than a US Dollar.
The preferable method to preserve this note are standard sized protective sleeves.
The October Dinar ISO code was YUO, it used both din. and дин as symbols.
In theory, the October Dinar was sub-divided into 100 Para, all coins were in Dinar values.
The German Deutsche Mark was used unofficially alongside the October Dinar.
During the October Dinar's circulation prices were set in "bods", equal to the Deutsche Mark.
The "bod" (point) system was used to avoid constantly changing store prices daily.